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浅析园林假山造景的布局手法

在风景区、公园、房地产小区等地,特别是我们常常在电影电视里面看到,我们会看见很多假山,可见假山在园林景观中应用之广泛。如今随着新工艺技术的研发,水泥雕塑工艺技术的提高,现今我们平时看到的假山大都是通过水泥人工塑造制作而成的。
In scenic spots, parks, real estate areas and other places, especially in the film and television, we can see a lot of rockery, which can be seen in the garden landscape widely used. Nowadays, with the development of new technology and the improvement of the technology of cement sculpture, most of the rockery we see at ordinary times are made by artificial cement.
济南假山制作
如何才能做出如此精巧的假山呢?在园林造景中,假山制作也需要通过合理的布局,与周边环境相融合,才能发挥其山水特色。下面我们就一起来看看园林景观造景中假山常用的布局手法。
How can we make such a smart rockery? In landscape design, rockery production also needs to be reasonable layout, and the surrounding environment integration, in order to play its landscape characteristics. Now let's take a look at the common layout techniques of rockery in landscaping.
人工塑石假山整体布局要讲究主次分明,疏密有致,讲究开合,虚实相生,藏露结合,以小见大。
Artificial rockery overall layout should pay attention to the primary and secondary clear, dense and delicate, pay attention to open and close, virtual and real, hide and dew combination, to see big.
一、主次分明
Primary and secondary
塑山所造山石的风格、质地须一致,色彩、纹理、脉络应自然变化。塑石假山主峰的位置虽然不一定要布置在假山区的中部地带,但却一定要在假山山系结构核心的位置上。主峰位置也不宜在山系的正中,而应当偏于一侧,以避免山系平面布局呈现对称状态。主峰的高度及体量,一般应比第二山峰高,以充分突出主峰的主体地位,做到主次分明。
The style and texture of mountain stones should be consistent, and color, texture and veins should be changed naturally. The location of the main peak of the rockery is not necessarily located in the middle of the rockery, but it must be located at the core of the rockery structure. The main peak position should not be in the middle of the mountain system, but should be on the side, so as to avoid the symmetry of the plane layout. The height and volume of the main peak should be higher than that of the second peaks, so as to give prominence to the main position of the main peak and make the primary and secondary distinctly clear.
另外,山的形状、大小、高低必须有变化,山峰自然高低错落,参差不齐;山腰线要流畅,左右要有变化,一边坡度陡,一边坡度缓,使山的造型形成一种动势;山脚要有回抱、曲折,线条要流利自如,以突出假山中水的柔软。
In addition, the shape, size and height of the mountain must be changed, the peak of the mountain is uneven and uneven; the mountain waist line should be fluency, the left and right changes, the steep slope, the gentle slope, the shape of the mountain to form a kind of momentum; the foot should have the back, twists and turns, the lines should be free to highlight the softness of the water in the rockery.
二、疏密有致
Two.
塑山的石纹石脉分布不可平均,应该自然分布。山石皴纹、群峰位置、植物点缀、小品配置等疏密有致。通常主峰一带是密处,山石树木布置得密,配峰相对稀疏。
The distribution of stone veins is not uniform and should be distributed naturally. The density of mountain stone chapped pattern, peak position, plant ornament and sketch arrangement are all caused. Usually the main peak area is the most densely located, and the trees are densely arranged, and the peaks are relatively sparse.
三、讲究开合
Three. Pay attention to opening and closing
在园林假山的艺术造型中,开是起势,合是收尾。立峰是开,坡脚是合,近山是开,远山是合。一般假山布局都是由3至4个开合交替出现,体现出节奏韵律。
In the artistic modeling of garden rockery, opening is the starting point and ending is ending. The peak is open, the foot of the slope is close, the mountain is open, and the distant mountain is a combination. The general rockery layout is from 3 to 4 opening and closing alternately, reflecting rhythm and rhythm.
四、虚实相生
Four. False and real life
在假山艺术中,常用虚实对比的方法来突出假山的艺术境界。所谓艺术境界是指用园林假山所表现的假山真实景观(称为实境),来突出某种深远的意境(称为虚境)。叠山置石十分讲究内收而后突兀的形态,以山洞取“虚”得其深远,后突取“实”得其造险。假山艺术由模仿真实的自然山体而逐渐发展开来。“虽有人造,宛自天开”是假山艺术的高境界。因此,假山艺术是人工与自然的和谐相生,在“真中有假,以假乱真”中体现虚实相生的意境。
In the art of rockery, the method of comparison between virtual and real is used to highlight the artistic realm of rockery. The so-called artistic realm refers to the real landscape of the rockery represented by the garden rockery (called the real realm), to highlight a certain far-reaching artistic conception (called the virtual realm). Mountains and stones are very particular about the form of collection and then abrupt, with the cave to take the "virtual" to its far-reaching, then suddenly take the "real" to its risk. The art of rockery develops from the imitation of the real natural mountain. "Although artificial, open from heaven" is the highest level of rockery art. Therefore, rockery art is the harmony between man-made and nature. It reflects the artistic conception of "truth has falsehood, and falsehood and confusion with truth".
五、藏露结合
Five. Combination of Tibetan and dew
露中有藏、藏中有露,即园林假山要展现出一个景外有景、景中生情的动人画面,产生深远意境。假山的藏露,关键的是峰峦要有立体布局,产生前后掩映,表现出“崇山峻岭”之感。另外,空白处理在园林假山造景中也起到十分重要的作用。明、清文人画家将山水画留出大量空白隐藏了大山大水,画面呈现一种空旷渺漠的境界,可谓“此处无声胜有声”。园林假山造景的空白处理与其有异曲同工之妙。两者在空间处理上都采用“藏露结合”的手法。空白在假山中所占空间的大小,对整个布局效果起着重要的作用。
Dew in hiding, hiding in dew, that is, the garden rockery to show a scene outside the scene, scenery in the moving picture of life, producing a far-reaching artistic conception. The most important thing of the hidden hills is the three-dimensional layout of the ridges, and the appearance of the mountains and hills. In addition, blank treatment also plays a very important role in garden rockery landscaping. The Ming and Qing Chinese painters have left a large number of blanks in the mountains and rivers to hide the great mountains and rivers. The pictures show a kind of empty and desert state, which can be described as "there is no sound here and there is sound." The blank treatment of garden rockery landscapes is different from that of other landscapes. Both of them use the combination of "Tibet and dew" in space processing. The space occupied by the blank in the rockery plays an important role in the layout effect.
六、以小见大
Six.
山置石,令人产生身临其境之感,得益于师法自然。叠山置石在造园中,山、石是营造景观不可缺少的载体。人们立足于山脚仰视高山,视线受到阻碍,只能看到眼前山体的局部。这时,虽不见整体景观却依然感受到雄伟壮丽,浮想联翩。假山布局正是利用这一特点,将假山置于一个较小的空间内,在塑造山体时不必塑造完全与真山相同的体积规模,只需塑造部分或微缩山体仿出真山的气质,使观赏者只能仰视而产生山外有山、意犹未尽的联想。这种以局部景观寓意整体景观的表现技法,充分体现了假山布局“以小见大”的艺术特点。
The stone placed on the mountain creates a sense of being on the scene and benefits from the practice of learning from nature. In mountain gardening, mountains and stones are indispensable carriers for creating landscapes. People stand on the foothills and look up to the mountains, and their sight is obstructed. At this time, although the whole landscape was not seen, it still felt magnificent and imaginative. The layout of the rockery is to use this feature to place the rockery in a small space. It does not need to shape the same size as the true mountain in the shape of the mountain. This technique of expressing the whole landscape with the meaning of local landscape fully embodies the artistic characteristics of the layout of rockery.
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