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园林假山两千年的历史回顾!

  在园林建设中,假山制作从秦汉时期开始的,开始是以土堆山,虽然山的气势有了,但没有石头的险峻之趣,于是又发展到了用真石头来建造假山。魏晋南北朝,山水诗和山水画开始兴盛起来,对园林建造产生了巨大影响。假山制作虽仿造的自然山石,与园林的结合却颇有中国山水画的意韵,造园者寄情山水的意趣得以聚于具体景象之中。园林中的假山制作历史已有近两千年了。
  In the construction of gardens, the fabrication of rockeries began in the Qin and Han Dynasties, and began with mounds of earth. Although the momentum of the mountains had changed, there was no precipitous interest in stones, so it developed to use real stones to build rockeries. In the Wei, Jin, Southern and Southern Dynasties, landscape poetry and landscape painting began to flourish, which had a great impact on garden construction. Despite imitating natural rocks and rocks, the combination of rockery and gardens has the charm of Chinese landscape paintings, and the interest of gardeners in expressing their feelings for mountains and waters can be gathered in specific scenes. The history of making rockeries in gardens has been nearly two thousand years.
  假山制作的发展要经过选料、筑池、叠山、装饰四个部分来进行。选料:大型山石的制作,无论是硬质石料与软质石料、不论是吸水与不吸水,都要求做到石料统一,规格统一(块状或条状)。筑池:叠山理水,筑池是理水的一种手段。水是山的血脉,有水则灵。水池的式样有多种。常见的是圆形,通常直径在5至10米,深度在80至120厘米;水深减除20厘米口沿,保持60厘米至100厘米;池底留有管道放水。叠山:假山不论是多体的(组合式),或单体的(孤峰式);它都是由主体(主峰)、客体(客峰)、衬体(矮山)三部分构成的。
  The development of rockery production should go through four parts: material selection, pond building, Hill folding and decoration. Material selection: The production of large-scale rocks, whether hard or soft, whether absorbent or non-absorbent, requires the unification of stone materials and specifications (block or strip). Pool building: stacking mountains and managing water, pool building is a means of managing water. Water is the blood of mountains, while water is the soul. There are many types of pools. It is usually round, usually 5 to 10 meters in diameter and 80 to 120 centimeters in depth; the water depth is subtracted from 20 centimeters along the mouth and maintained from 60 centimeters to 100 centimeters; there are pipes at the bottom of the pool to discharge water. Mountains overlapping: Artificial hills are either multi-body (combination type) or single-body (solitary peak type); they are composed of three parts: main peak, object peak and lining (low mountain).
  魏晋南北朝时期,山水诗和山水画的兴盛,对于造园的影响巨大,表现在假山制作中则是假山的置景手法上,一般采纳国画中的高远法和深远法进行设计。
  During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Southern Dynasties, the flourishing of landscape poetry and landscape painting had a great impact on gardening. It was shown in the way of setting the scenery of rockery in the production of rockery, which generally adopted the lofty and far-reaching methods in traditional Chinese painting.
  (1)主体应排在前面左侧或右侧,若主体在左,客体即在右,形成开合式、一大一小、一高一矮、互相呼应。
  (1) The subject should be on the left or right side of the front. If the subject is on the left, the object is on the right, forming an open-close type, a big one, a small one, a tall one, a short one, and echoing with each other.
济南假山制作
  主峰挺拔险峻、后面山坡缓缓延伸,与后座衬体(远山)形断意连。主峰耸立面前,形成开门见山欲先藏的手法,使人感到境界越大,对中部的山水景色产生“可见而又看不清”的诱惑力,使游人必须再移步往前看个究竟。
  The main peak is tall and steep, and the back hillside extends slowly, which is connected with the backseat liner (remote mountain). In front of the main peak, it forms a way to hide first, which makes people feel that the greater the realm is, the more attractive the central landscape is to "see but not see clearly", which makes visitors have to move forward to see what is going on.
  (2)主体的高度比例和高远法相同,其位置应排在中部左侧或右侧,客体摆在前面右侧或左侧。主客体一个错前,一个错后,遥相呼应,衬体在后。单体景物的多层结构,构成近(客体)中(主体)远(衬体)景的各体层次,从而加强了正面的透视感,增加了景观的深度。山体总面积一般不超过水面的一半或少于一半。这样,留下足够的空白,给欣赏者留下联想与想象的空间,达到“此处无景胜有景”、“虚中见实”的效果。“山借树为衣,树以山为骨”,只有合理配置植物,山水才能有骨有肉,有形有神。
  (2) The height ratio of the main body is the same as that of the high-distance method. Its position should be arranged on the left or right side of the middle, and the object should be placed on the right or left side of the front. The subject and object have a wrong front, a wrong back, echo each other remotely, and the lining is behind. The multi-layer structure of a single scene forms all levels of the near (object) medium (subject) and far (lining) scenery, thus enhancing the positive perspective and increasing the depth of the landscape. Generally, the total area of mountain body does not exceed half or less of the water surface. In this way, leave enough blank space for the viewer to associate and imagine, to achieve the effect of "scenic scenery here" and "visible reality in the empty". "Mountains are clothed with trees, and trees are built with mountains as bones." Only by reasonably allocating plants, can mountains and rivers have bones, flesh and spirit.
  假山制作选用姿态优美,叶小常绿,生长不旺,寿命很长,适应性强的植物。
  The rockery is made of plants with beautiful posture, small evergreen leaves, low growth, long life and strong adaptability.
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