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假山制作如何做到逼真?

古人云:“山无石不奇,水无石不清,园无石不秀,室无石不雅。赏石清心,赏石怡人,赏石益智,赏石陶情,赏石长寿。”古典园林假山多以天然山石塑造,辅以能工巧匠精妙的布局设置,还园林以山水画中的意韵。
The ancients said, "No stone is strange in mountains, no stone is unclear in water, no stone is beautiful in gardens and no stone is elegant in rooms." Appreciate the stone, enjoy the stone pleasant, appreciate the stone wisdom, appreciate the stone pottery, appreciate the stone longevity. Most of the rockeries in classical gardens are shaped by natural rocks, assisted by exquisite layout by skillful craftsmen, and also by the charm of landscape paintings.
假山制作工艺发展至今,由于天然石材价格昂贵,并且拥有奇异造型的天然石材甚是难寻,因此衍生出了以GRC、混合砂浆、钢丝网为假山制作的材料,逐渐地塑石假山成为了天然山石的代替品。我们都知道,人造假山相比自然山石自然是少了些许的灵气,因此,如何是塑石假山做到逼真的效果尤为重要。这也是塑石假山得以立足假山市场的重要因素,更是对一个假山施工队伍的假山制作技法的检验。
With the development of rockery manufacturing technology, because of the high price of natural rockery and the difficulty of finding natural rockery with strange shapes, materials made of GRC, mixed mortar and steel wire mesh have been derived, and rockery rockery has gradually become a substitute for natural rockery. As we all know, artificial rockeries are naturally less spiritual than natural rockeries. Therefore, how to make the plastic rockeries realistic is particularly important. This is also an important factor for the plastic rockery to be based on the rockery market, and is also a test of the rockery making techniques of a rockery construction team.
塑石假山制作能否达到仿真效果,关键的影响因素还在于假山抹面的制作、颜色的处理、山体结构的打造、以及与地处环境的融合。
Whether the plastic rockery fabrication can achieve the simulation effect depends on the fabrication of the rockery face, the treatment of the color, the construction of the mountain structure and the integration with the environment.
塑石假山抹面的处理主要涉及山石的质感、纹理的刻画、色泽的打造。质感和色泽根据设计要求,用石粉、色粉按适当比例配白水泥或普通水粉调成砂浆,按粗糙、平滑、拉毛等塑面手法处理。纹理的塑造,一般来说,直纹为主、横纹为辅的山石,较能表现峻峭、挺拔的姿势;横纹为主、直纹为辅的山石,较能表现潇洒、豪放的意象。
济南假山制作
The treatment of plastic rockery masonry mainly involves the texture, texture and color of rockery. According to the design requirements, the texture and colour are mixed with white cement or ordinary water powder in appropriate proportion with stone powder and colour powder to form mortar, which is treated by plastic surface techniques such as roughness, smoothness and hairing. Generally speaking, the shaping of texture, mainly composed of straight lines and supplemented by horizontal lines, can show steep and upright posture; while the shaping of mainly composed of horizontal lines and supplemented by straight lines can show chic and bold images.
颜色的处理上,根据所塑山石的位置极其作用,选择合适的氧化铁颜料(或者丙烯颜料)进行调制、上色。上色在塑面水分未干透时进行,基本色调用颜料粉和水泥加水拌匀,逐层洒染。在石缝孔洞或阴角部位略洒稍深的色调,待塑面九成干时,在凹陷处洒上少许绿、黑或白色等大小、疏密不同的斑点,以增强立体感和自然感。
In the treatment of color, according to the position of the moulded rocks, the appropriate iron oxide pigments (or propylene pigments) are selected to adjust and color. Coloring is carried out when the moisture of the plastic surface is not completely dry. The basic tone is mixed with pigment powder and cement and water, and dyed layer by layer. When 90% of the plastic surface is dry, a few green, black or white spots of different sizes and densities are sprinkled on the depression to enhance the stereoscopic and natural feeling.
假山制作与环境的融合,正所谓“景有尽而意无穷”,假山的制作是塑山,更是造景,尽管假山可以在园林或景区里独立成景,但也不能跳脱出大环境而独立存在。假山配以跌水,用水的柔和突出山的雄伟、壮阔,空间效果更加饱和,更赋诗情画意。结合动物雕塑和绿植,营造丰富的视觉感受。
The integration of rockery production and environment is the so-called "endless scenery". The production of rockery is moulding mountains, but also making scenery. Although rockery can be built independently in gardens or scenic spots, it can not exist independently out of the environment. Rockery with falling water, water softness highlights the magnificence and magnificence of the mountain, space effect is more saturated, more poetic and picturesque. Combine animal sculpture and green planting to create rich visual experience.
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