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济南假山制作前需要哪些材料准备?

  假山设计制作中肯定离不开石料的使用,石料准备是塑石假山施工前的重要工作,包括对石料的选择、运输和分类。下面春天园艺假山制作人员为您讲述塑石假山施工前的石料准备工作。
  Stone preparation is an important work before the construction of plastic rockery, including the selection, transportation and classification of stone. The following spring horticultural rockery producers will tell you about the stone preparation work before the construction of plastic rockery rockery.
  1、石料的选购:
  1. Selection and Purchase of Stone:
  根据假山设计意图及设计方案所确定的石材种类,需要到山石的产地进行选购。在产地现场,通常需根据所能提供的石料的石质、大小、形态等,设想出那些石料可用于假山的何种部位,并要通盘考虑山石的形状与用量。
  According to the rockery design intention and the type of rockery determined by the design plan, it is necessary to purchase rockery from its origin. In the production site, it is usually necessary to figure out what parts of rocks can be used in the rockery according to the stone quality, size, shape and so on. The shape and amount of rocks should be taken into account.
  2、石料的运输:
  2. Transportation of stone:
  石料的运输,特别是湖石的运输,重要的是防止其被损坏。在装卸过程中,宁可多费一些人力、物力,也要尽力保护好石料的自然石面。峰石在运输过程中更要注意保护。一般在运输车中放置黄沙或虚土,厚约20cm左右,而后将峰石仰卧于沙土之上,这样可以保证峰石的安全。
  The most important thing in the transportation of stone, especially Lake stone, is to prevent it from being damaged. In the process of loading and unloading, we would rather spend some more manpower and material resources, and try our best to protect the natural stone surface. Peak stones in the transport process should pay more attention to protection. In general, yellow sand or virtual soil is placed in the transport vehicle, about 20 cm thick, and then the peak stone is lying on the sand, which can ensure the safety of the peak stone.
  3、石料的分类:
  3. Classification of stones:
  石料运到工地后应分块平放在地面上,以供“相石”方便。然后再将石料分门别类,进行有秩序地排列放置。
  When the stone is transported to the construction site, it should be laid on the ground in blocks for the convenience of "facing stone". Then the stones are classified and arranged in an orderly manner.
  一、假山的基本特征
  I. Basic Characteristics of Rockery
  中国园林是一种自然式山水园林,追求天然之趣是中国园林的基本特征。大自然的山水是假山创作的艺术源泉和依据。真山虽好,却难得经常游览。假山创作的基本原则是:“有真为假,做假成真”。假山布置在住宅附近,作为艺术作品,比真山更为概括、更为精炼,可寓以人的思想感情,使之有“片山有致,寸石生情”的魅力。人为的假山又必须力求不露人工的痕迹,令人真假难辨。与中国传统的山水画一脉相承的假山,贵在似真非真,虽假犹真,耐人寻味。假山具有多方面的造景功能,如构成园林的主景或地形骨架,划分和组织园林空间,布置庭院、驳岸、护坡、挡土,设置自然式花台。还可以与园林建筑、园路、场地和园林植物组合成富于变化的景致,借以减少人工气氛,增添自然生趣,使园林建筑融汇到山水环境中。因此,假山成为表现中国自然山水园的特征之一。
  Chinese garden is a kind of natural landscape garden. Pursuing natural interest is the basic characteristic of Chinese garden. The natural landscape is the artistic source and basis of rockery creation. Although the real mountain is good, it seldom visits frequently. The basic principle of rockery creation is: "Truth is false, and falsehood is true". The rockery is arranged near the residence. As an artistic work, it is more concise and refined than the real mountain. It can embody people's thoughts and feelings, and make it have the charm of "a beautiful mountain, an inch of stone and sentiment". Artificial rockery must also strive not to reveal artificial traces, making it difficult to distinguish between true and false. The rockery, which is in line with the traditional Chinese landscape painting, is precious in its authenticity, though it is still fake and intriguing. Rockery has many landscaping functions, such as constituting the main landscape or terrain skeleton of the garden, dividing and organizing the garden space, arranging courtyards, revetments, slope protection, earth retaining, and setting up natural flower beds. It can also be combined with garden buildings, garden roads, sites and garden plants to form a variety of scenery, so as to reduce the artificial atmosphere, increase natural interest, and make garden buildings merge into the landscape environment. Therefore, rockery has become one of the characteristics of natural landscape gardens in China.
济南假山制作
  二、假山的整体布局
  II. Overall Layout of Rockery
  假山布局要选择和结合环境条件确定山水的间架和山水形势,要按照水脉和山石的自然皴纹,将零碎的山石材料堆砌成为有整体感和一定类型的假山,使之远观有“势”,近看有“质”和对比衬托,包括大小、曲直、收放、明晦、起伏、虚实、寂喧、幽旷、浓淡、向背、险夷等。
  The layout of rockery should choose and combine the environmental conditions to determine the space and landscape situation. According to the natural chaff pattern of water veins and rocks, fragmentary rockery materials should be piled up into a holistic and certain type of rockery to make it have "potential" in the long view and "quality" and contrast in the near view, including size, straightness, collection, obscurity and fluctuation. They are empty and real, silent and noisy, secluded, dense, backward, dangerous and so on.
  三、假山常用的石材
  3. Stone materials commonly used in rockery
  中国园林中的假山,常见的是土石山。土石山的一种是土山带石,即在以土为主堆成的假山上,或在山坡上,半露岩石,犹如天然生就;或在山脚,用垒石护坡等。另一种是石山带土的假山,“但以石作主而土附之”,在江南园林多见。假山中还有纯粹的石山,常置于庭院内、走廊旁,或依墙而建。选择堆叠假山的石块,是非常重要的。叠山石有名的,有湖石类的太湖石,以产于太湖洞庭山消夏湾者为优;还有黄石,好的产于常州黄山。山石的“石形、石质、石纹、石理,皆有不同,”所以,要按照所构筑园林的具体情况来决定去取。
  Rock and earth mountains are the most common rockery mountains in Chinese gardens. One kind of earth-rock mountain is the earth-rock belt, that is, on the artificial hill with soil as the main pile, or on the hillside, half-exposed rock, as if born naturally, or at the foot of the hill, with barrier rocks to protect the slope and so on. The other is the rockery with soil in the rocky mountains, "but the rockery is the master and the soil is attached to it", which is common in gardens in the south of the Yangtze River. There are also pure rocky hills in the rockery, often placed in the courtyard, near the corridor, or built according to the wall. It is very important to choose rocks to stack rockeries. The most famous stacked rocks are Taihu rocks with lake rocks, the best of which are produced in Xiaoxia Bay, Dongting Mountain, Taihu Lake, and Huangshi, the best of which is produced in Huangshan Mountain, Changzhou. The "stone shape, stone quality, stone grain and stone texture" of the rocks are different, so we should decide to take them according to the specific conditions of the gardens we have built.
  济南假山制作是中国园林艺术中有代表性的景观之一,已形成其特定的山石文化。“园无石不秀”“居无石不雅”,以自然山石为庭院的主景,已越来越受到人们的喜爱。崇尚自然向往返璞归真的环境空间是人们的追求。更多相关内容可点击我们的网站进行咨询:http://www.jnlaowang.com
  The fabrication of Jinan rockery is one of the representative landscapes in Chinese garden art, and has formed its specific rockery culture. "No stone in the garden is beautiful", "No stone in the garden is elegant". With natural rocks as the main landscape of the courtyard, it has been more and more popular. It is people's pursuit to advocate nature and return to the real environment. For more information, click on our website: http://www.jnlaowang.com
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