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古建布局怎样考虑方位方向?

中国古建筑布局讲究方位,十分注重方向,这是在建筑设计、施工建造时的一个重要问题。中国有句古话:“向阳门第春先到”,由此可知住宅宅院以及主要房屋都应当面向正南,采取向阳的方向。正房面朝南,考虑的是采光,光线明亮,阳光可以从上午9时到下午4时照射入室,居住在房屋之中舒服温暖。若建造西向的房屋,则西晒,房里受热难当。若盖南房时,南房即房屋面北,北京人管这种房屋叫“倒座”,常年不见太阳,等于居住在阴山背后,所以人们不愿意住这种房子。
The layout of ancient Chinese architecture pays attention to orientation and direction, which is an important issue in architectural design and construction. There is an old saying in China: "Spring comes first to the Yangmen". From this we can see that residential houses and main houses should face south and take the direction of the sun. The front room faces south, the first consideration is daylighting, bright light, sunlight can be from 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. into the room, living in the house comfortable and warm. If we build a westward house, it will be hard to get into the sun. If the south house is built, the south house is the house facing the north, Beijing people call this kind of house "inverted seat", the sun is not seen all year round, is equivalent to living behind the Yinshan, so people do not want to live in this kind of house.
要造房子,其方向只有向南,中国的礼制制度对住宅建筑影响很大,都是要求以向南的方位为原则。
To build a house, its direction is only southward. China's ritual system has a great impact on residential buildings, which require the principle of southward orientation.
济南假山制作
中国从南到北,从东到西,千百万住宅,各种房屋,在选取方向时,都遵循这一条原则,自古以来一直不变。在一所住宅中,主要的房屋如客厅、明间、卧室、餐厅等等基本上都是向南的。例如:大理白族四合院都面向正南。
China from south to north, from east to west, millions of houses, all kinds of houses, choose the direction, all follow this principle, has been unchanged since ancient times. In a house, the main houses such as living rooms, bright rooms, bedrooms, restaurants and so on are basically southward. For example, Dali Bai nationality quadrangles are facing the south.
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